The techniques, a short explication.
digital print
phcarcardboard printdotoc
photographic print (analog)
pinhole camera print
analog photoprint

A print is a work of art made of ink on paper and existing in multiple examples. It is created not by drawing directly on paper, but through an indirect transfer process. The artist begins by creating a composition on another surface (metal, cardboard, stone) and the transfer occurs when a sheet of paper, placed in contact with this surface, is run trough a printing press. Among the advantages of making an artwork in this way is, that numerous “impressions” can be made, because new pieces of paper can be sent through the press in the same way. The artist decides how many to make and the total number of impressions is called edition.
There are many ways of printing in an analog way, woodprint, etching, lithography, cardboard print, lino print among others.


n the 19 th century some men in England and France, at the same time, found a way of keeping an image made by a camera obscura, on a certain surface. In the beginning they were able to keep it on glass, later on film and photo-paper. The first prints were 'contact prints'. This means that the positive print has de same size as the negative image. Later magnifiers were developed to make an (positive) enlargement of a small negative.


A digital print is made quite simple by 'scanning' (digitally 'reading' with a digital 'scanner') an image and than print it on a simple A4 printer or bring it to the professional printing lab to be printed. But today there are hardly anymore analog prints. Everything today is 'digital'. It means that any device (image, music, film) is translated from a digital set of numbers (zero and one) to be translated by a computer in something visible or something you can hear. Because today chips are very small and powerful, computers can work very fast and can work with big and complicated files.
Digital photo prints can be very big, wide 1.50 m until length of 5 m or more.


photo-collage is a gathering of techniques that have in common the fact that photographs are involved. They can be combinated with other photographs on a piece of paper but also with drawings of paintings. This can be executed analogically. But you can work completely digitally in a program on the computer, for instance Photoshop and make all kinds of combinations by working in layers for instance.


A gum print is an old technique to print a film negative on paper. You make an emulsion of different ingredients (arab gum, potassium dichromate and a pigment), this emulsion is sensitive to light like any emulsion on photo film. Only this emulsion is not very sensitive. You can work with it in room light. You paint it on coated paper, leave it to dry in a dark place. When it is dry you put it on a table outside, in the sun of possible), cover it with a negative (if possible a big one) and put a heavier piece of glass on it to make a good contact of the negative and the paper and put it in the sun. You let it stay for some minutes or half an hour (depending on the image and the strength of the sun, you have to make proves), take it inside and put it in plain water. After a while you can see the positive image coming up. You dry the image. After some additional treatment the image is ready for centuries to come. You can make more negative images on top of the first one by covering the image again with the gum emulsion. It is possible to expose the set of negative and paper with emulsion in special day light lamps. But it will take hours to get an image and it will never have the quality of sunlight. We have plenty of sunshine and will start again this spring.


An etching is a print of a drawing made in a metal plate of zinc or copper. More precise: the drawing is made in the metal by nitric acid (aqua fortis). This chemical product works in the metal, 'eats' it away. By covering a plate with a special resisting liquid that will become hard after drying, you make the plate ready for drawing. The cover lets you be able to draw in it with a special etching pen, a very fine metal point, you don't scratch in the plate, you only take away the cover. When the drawing is ready you put the plate in a dilution of water and nitric acid (10 to 20% acid) after you have made some proofs. After the time (less time will make the drawing lighter) you have proofed to be the right time, you take the plate out of the liquid and take away the cover with turpentine. The plate can be printed. You cover the plate with etching ink and by hand and cloth try to get the ink inside the holes in the plate, the drawing. Then again you take away the ink on the plate with cloth and thin paper (telephone books!) and end the process with the far side of you hand. The ink remained in the drawing. The plate is put on the etching press, etching paper on top of it, a cloth of felt on top and it can go under the big rolls of the etching press. The print is ready.
The etching press can also be used to print 'cardboard' prints. This technique is comparable with linocut but easier to execute. The results are very good (see the 'paper tiles' of Leonor Venancio).


This is one of the most simple ways of printing. You have a good piece of cardboard in layers. Make a drawing and cut away the highest layer of cardboard around or within your design (you have to prepare the cardboard with a solution of shellac to make it stronger). Cover the piece with ink with a roller, you only cover the higher part of the cardboard. You can print on an etching press on damp etching paper, but also on newspaper (look at the paper tiles of Leonor Venãncio).


Wallpaper' is made by all kinds of combinations of photographs, drawings, filters etc. The idea is that parts of a wall of a room, an office, a nursery can get some meters of a wallpaper, sometimes part of a room, sometimes a full room. Some of the designs are great for a stage.
The material is soft, a thin vinyl, auto collant. It sticks great. The ink is lightfast. It can be cleaned with a soft damp cloth. The with is max. 1.50 m.
There is a possibility to have your own choice of a design. Apart from being able to adapt my design to your wishes, I also can execute special wishes.


This spring we are going to do pinhole camera photographs. You only need a cardboard box, e.g. 20x20x20 cm. with a little hole. It works as a camera obscura, on the opposite side of the hole an image is projected of the outside. If you put on that place a piece of photopaper you will catch the negative of the image. You have to develop this image in the darkroom. After you scan the image, in Photoshop you can change this image to a positive.